Marine Fuel is, in essence, fuel for the ships. Simply speaking, it is the material to be burnt in the combustion chamber of the ship to produce power for sailing as well as on-board operations. Since combustion and engine systems are all designed to achieve some specific performance indexes, not any kind of material can be used as the fuel. Inappropriate materials if used, may cause damage to the engine system.
Marine fuel which can be classified into fuel oil and gas oil, is essential for voyage of ships and is supplied based on tonnage and propulsion system of vessels.
The International Maritime Organization (“IMO”) has been progressively tightening the suplhur content in fuel oil used on board ships operating outside designated emission control areas from 3.5% to less than 0.5% starting from 1 January 2020.
Bunkering is a process for marine fuel supply to various kinds of vessels, which involves the shipboard logistics of loading fuel. Marine fuels are supplied and distributed through bunker barges, which is known as ship-to-ship bunkering, while less commonly to be delivered to vessels by pipelines at berth with the necessary equipment, which is known as terminal-to-ship bunkering